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80. The Psychoanalytical Study On Mahmoody’s Aggressive Behavior Found In Betty Mahmoody’s Autobiographical Novel “Not Without My Daughter”


1.1 Background of the study

Literature is an interesting world, which is full of values, experiences and knowledge. Those values can be applied into our real life in order to discover the meaning and roles of our existence in this world in the sense to make us better people.

Now, literature becomes people's part of life. We can see most of literary works are taken from real story and life experiences even some of them are fictitious works. For examples James Joyces’ work, Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man and Thomas Wolf’s epic Look Homeward, Angel.

Rees (1973:1-2) defines the meaning of literature into two senses: in broad and narrow sense. In a broad sense it includes everything written such as textbooks, catalogues, brochures, pamphlets, etc. While in a narrow sense, he defines it more specifically as a piece of writing which expresses and communicates thoughts, feeling, ideas and attitudes of its writer towards life in the world.

From Rees’ general definition, France Connoly as quoted by Koesnosoebroto (1988: 3) divides the definition of literature into two specific genre definitions: the literature of knowledge and the literature of imagination. The literature of knowledge interprets the people's need of factual information or for understanding of the ideas that help people lead a social and intellectual life. It may be in the forms of articles, documents, books, brochures, pamphlets, etc, which base on facts, ideas and happenings. Whereas the literature of imagination interprets human experiences through fictitious presentation of ideas, thoughts, events and happenings, for example drama, poem, novel, etc.

Literary works may be good, bad or indifferent. Rees (1973: 9) states that good literary works should fulfill the following criteria:
(1) Psychological truth or holding the mirror up to the nature.
Psychological truth means that the literature should convey the reality of life within the text.
(2) Originality
Originality means that the literary works must be an original creative work created by the writer.
(3) Craftsmanship
Craftsmanship means that the literary work is a product of a creative process held seriously and intensively by the writer.
(4) Consciousness of moral value
Consciousness of moral value means that the writer must consider the moral values when s/he writes her/his works. Thus, the readers can take the moral
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