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45. Word, Above Word And Grammatical Equivalence In The Translation Of J.K. Rowling’s Novel Entitled “Harry Potter And The Goblet Of Fire”


Every translation has points of strength and point of weakness, so that every translation is open to correction and improvement. To improve a translation product a translator should find the closest equivalence in several levels. Baker, 1992 suggested the three level of equivalences namely equivalence at word level, above word level and equivalence at grammatical level.

The objective of this study is to identify the word, above word and grammatical equivalence in the novel “Harry Potter and the Goblet of Fire” written by Joanne Kathleen Rowling which is translated into Indonesia as “Harry Potter dan Piala Emas” by Listiana Srisanti and to see what strategies are used to make the translation equal.

Documents and observation methods were used to collect the data. The document method was employed as the data are in the form of printed texts: the English and the Indonesian version of the novel. The observation involves some steps, namely observing, identifying, classifying and evaluating. The data gathered were then analyzed descriptively by using a qualitative approach.

The findings of the analyses are as follows. With regard to the non equivalence at word level, word equivalence can be achieved by various types of strategies which are suggested by Baker. Some strategies found in the novel are: more general word, more specific, more neutral, more expressive, cultural substitution, loan word, omission, addition. With regard to the non equivalence above word level, the equivalence can be achieved by various types of strategies: similar meaning and form, similar meaning and dissimilar form, paraphrase, omission, addition. The equivalence at grammatical level can be achieved by various strategies too: with regard to number, the equivalence can be achieved by maintaining the SL plural form into the TL plural form; by changing the SL plural form into TL singular form for some nouns which always take plural forms as they refer to pair or two things. The gender aspect is absent in bahasa Indonesia both in the third person singular and its pronoun. With regard to person, the equivalence can be achieved by involving the inclusive / exclusive dimension and the familiar / non familiar dimension from the SL into the TL. The distinction of temporal distribution in bahasa Indonesia is expressed in a certain word, and the last, changing the voice from SL active into TL passive is more natural.

It is suggested that the translator should be careful when translating both individual words or collocation and idiom since they carry meaning and the meaning can be culture-specific. For that reason, the translator should understand various problems in translation in each level, so that she can choose the nearest equivalence word and sentence in the target language.
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