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88. Word, Above Word And Grammatical Level Equivalence In The Translation Of Nokia 2300 Manual


Translation is an activity of changing the language from one language (source language) into another one (target language), by giving the closest equivalent, without changing the meaning. In translation, various problems arise due to it involves more than one language with different characteristics and cultures. It is why there are many strategies used by the translators to overcome the problems.

This final project mainly aims at finding the strategies used by the translator in translating NOKIA 2300 Manual from English into Indonesia based on the classification of word, above word and grammatical level equivalence. This study was conducted under the consideration offered by Mona Baker in her book In Other Words that in translating source text (in this case English) to target language (Indonesia) we can use some strategies to get the closest equivalent words so that the natural and acceptable translation can be achieved.

This final project was a qualitative study, which presents an analysis on how English text in Manual was translated into Indonesia. Observation and document methods are used in collecting the data. The document method is employed as the data are in the form of printed text: English-Indonesia of manual. The observation involves several steps namely observing, identifying, classifying and evaluating. The data were analyzed descriptively.

The finding of the analysis are as follows: In the word level equivalence, the strategies used by the translator are: using more neutral/less expressive word, using more general word, using more specific word, using loan word, paraphrasing using related word, paraphrasing using unrelated word and omission. In above word level equivalence, the strategies used by the translator are: in collocation, the translator only used strategy similar meaning similar form but in idiom the translator used similar meaning similar form and similar meaning different form. In grammatical level equivalence, the problem of equivalence can be found in the categories of number, person, tense and aspect and voice. There is no grammatical category of gender in this analysis. In the category of number, the strategies used are omitting the relevant information on number (plural into singular, plural into plural by reduplicating the noun) and encoding the information lexically. In the category of person, the strategy used is using the dimension of formality and familiarity. In the grammatical category of tense and aspect is changing the tense from present tense into future tense and in the grammatical category of voice, the strategy used changing the voice from active into passive and from passive into active.

A suggestion that was drawn from this study is translators should constantly make choices in each words, sentences or translations unit, so as to decide the most suitable strategies that can overcome problems and difficulties of translation, especially problems of non-equivalence in the level of word, above word and grammar.
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