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184. The Human Needs Incompleteness As Represented In The Characters In Katherine Mansfield’s Short Stories

In this study, the type of literary work that is used is short story, and the amount of the short stories used are three short stories. They tell about loneliness, which is the effect of the incompleteness of human needs. The purpose of this study is to analyze the human needs incompleteness that happened in the characters of the short stories written by Katherine Mansfield, and how these characters compensate such things.
The theory used in this study is ERG theory or Existence, Relatedness, and Growth theory. This theory was founded by Clayton Alderfer, which is the revised version from  Abraham Maslow‘s  Hierarchy  of  Needs  theory.  These  two  human  needs theories   are   included   in   motivation  theory,   which   is   also   included   into Psychoanalysis.
The objects of the study are the three short stories entitled Miss Brill, The Woman at the Store, and The Canary written by Katherine Mansfield. This study focuses on the analysis of the incompleteness of human needs that the characters in the stories had and how these characters overcame it. The data used in this study were analyzed by using descriptive qualitative method. These data were in the form of sentences and phrases that showed the human needs types that have been completed and not been completed by the characters of the stories. In this study, the data were collected and classified into four categories: existence needs, relatedness needs, growth needs, and the  compensation.  Then,  these  data  were  analyzed  by  using  human  needs  or motivation theory in Psychoanalysis Approach.
The result of the study shows that the characters of the stories had completed the existence needs, but not the relatedness and the growth needs yet. In addition, they tried to do some things they really like to distract the feeling of loneliness as a result of such incompleteness of human needs.
It is hoped that this study will be the useful reference for other researchers who want to analyze the same topic with the topic that the writer uses in this study. However, it is expected that those researchers should see other perspectives or use other objects.

Keywords: Incompleteness, Human Needs, Characters, Short Story
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