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97. Man’s Search for Meaning Based on Logotherapy Theory in Ernest Hemingway’s The Sun Also Rises


ABSTRACT

Logotherapy is the synthesis of Viktor Frankl´s thoughts, observations, studies, and experiences. The Logotherapy theory which formed itself slowly during the first 40 years of his life. The essence of this theory is that man needs a meaning in life. That he has the will to look for this meaning, and also, the freedom to do so. Without meaning of life, people become empty and fall into an existential vacuum.

Ernest Hemingway’s The Sun Also Rises is very interesting to be analyzed based on some considerations. First, the novel described the existential vacuum and the three foundations of logotherapy theory. The researcher identified and described the logotherapy focused on the existential vacuum and three foundations of logotherapy (the freedom of will, the will to meaning, and the meaning of life).

This research is also designed as literary criticism and uses the psychological approach to deal with the data. Literary criticism is the study, discussion, evaluation, and interpretation the literature. Modern literary criticism is often informed by literary theory, which is psychological discussion of its methods on studying the psychological conditions of the main character in the novel. The present studies analyze the novel from psychological aspect dealing with logotherapy theory by Victor Frankl. The researcher viewed psychological approach suitable with this method from the statement of problems. This study is conducted based on the statement of problems (1) How are Jake Barnes’s problem of existential vacuum based on Logotherapy theory?. 2) How does Jake Barnes find the three foundations of logotherapy based on Victor Frankl’s theory? The results in this research are (1) The problem of the existential vacuum is faced by Jake Barnes.

Jake Barnes feels meaningless in his life. This is the existential vacuum which is compensated for in the urge for money, sex, entertainment, even violence. (2) The freedom of will, the will to meaning, and the meaning of life are the three foundations of logotherapy theory which help Jake Barnes to get the meaning of life. Jake Barnes finds this three foundations of logotherapy in his life.
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